In order to clarify the notion of coordination, we need to ask which factors, forces, elements and partial processes of the motor sections must be coordinated, respectively ordered and organized in a general logical process. This question has different answers, determined by the point of view of the field of scientific research.
Physiology reports coordination to muscular activity (Leboulch), to certain rules of activity of synergic and antagonistic muscles (Wacolder) and nervous system conduction processes. This approach requires the name of neuro-muscular coordination.
Functional anatomy and kinesiology underline motor coordination, the relationships between the play of various muscle groups (Wells), while the biomechanics correlate the force impulses to be coordinated within the action, according to the established parameters (Cihaidze-Donskoi).
Turning to the issue of the factors and processes that need to be coordinated, we find that the notion of coordination capabilities includes all the above-mentioned aspects, each of them representing the differentiated abstraction steps of conscious driving influences.
J.Weineck formulates a schematic model of motor control in which the various types of response are determined by certain requirements:
- Gathering information and processing it (the quality of the process depends to a large extent on the analyst’s ability to analyze himself).
- Anticipating and scheduling the motor act by capitalizing on the previous experience and the motor “luggage” of the athlete.
- Transmitting the impulse to the effector.
- Constant retro-invalidation, based on conduct.
- Corrective impulses, if necessary.
Of the presented, we find that gathering and assembling the information have an essential role in the motor coordination processes.
Sensory and verbal information is a condition in the coordination of movements, which supports the idea that every motor act involves programming. This programming is called psychologically, “anticipated development of the movement”.
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