Classification of the effort

Effort in box
Effort in box

Monitoring athletes’ training – consists of a timely and fairly evaluation of the biological, biomechanical and psychological response of the subject to the stimuli used in training, in order to guide the preparation scientifically correct.

 

Physical effortis a result of skeletal muscle activity that produces some mechanical work following voluntary contractions. These contractions are achieved through limited energy consumption, which leads to the fatigue and the need for restoration.

Effort and rest – are two components of the the training which, in order to achieve an effective adaptation of the body, must be found in an optimal ratio, differentiated on different periods of training and depending on the goals, age, sex, etc..

To classify the sports effort, in today’s article I will quote one of the best teachers I had in University (UNEFS Bucharest), Professor Mihaela Apostu:

1.      Depending on the effort intensity

–          Maximal intensity effort

– with a duration of 10-15 seconds; according to some authors, this time is shorter (3-8 seconds);

– is characterized by the highest energy flow (the amount of energy released in the unit of time);

– ATP (adenosine triphosphoric acid) is resynthesized by converting creatine phosphate (CP);

–          Submaximal intensity effort

– with a duration of 60-70 seconds;

– the energogenetic system is anaerobic;

– recovery of ATP is accomplished within lactic acid glycolysis;

–          High intensity effort

– has a duration of up to 6 minutes;

– the energogenetic system required is both anaerobic and aerobic;

– after Hanssen, metabolic processes are:

**at 1 minute – 79.6% anaerobic and 20.4% aerobic;

**at 2 minutes – 54.6% anaerobic and 45.4% aerobic;

**at 3 minutes – 47.4% anaerobic and 52.6% aerobic;

**at 6 minutes – 28.6% anaerobic and 71.4% aerobic;

–          Medium intensity effort

– has a duration of up to 60 minutes;

– the energogenetic system is aerobic;

– the primary catabolic substrate is muscle glycogen;

– ergostasis is installed with a relative balance between oxygen consumption and oxygen requirements of the body;

– the minor oxygen deficiency will be covered by posfort, through increased O2 consumption;

–          Low intensity effort – energogenesis is aerobic type;

– the energy potential is represented by the glucose and lipid substrate;

– stable steady-state (steady-state) is installed, where the consumption and oxygen requirements are perfectly balanced.

2.      Depending on the oxygen supply of the body during the effort:

–          Anaerobic effort

– achieved without intake or with limited oxygen supply;

– performed under apnea or restricted ventilation conditions;

– depending on the energy substrate we distinguish:

**anaerobic alactacid effort with phosphate-type energy substrate (ATP and CP) and rapidly released energy by breaking the phosphate-macroergic bonds;

**anaerobic lactacid effort with ATP energy substrate, permanently restimulated by glycolysis with lactic acid accumulation;

–          Aerobic effort

– is under the conditions of oxygen supply;

– the direct energy substrate is ATP, which is continuously replenished by catabolism of carbohydrates or lipids in the Krebs cycle;

– in the first 2-3 minutes of effort, work in oxygen deficiency until the oxidation-reducing systems adjust their functional level;

– an oxygen debt is accrued which will be paid after the effort;

– stable state (steady-state), characterized by the balance between oxygen demand and consumption; dresses two forms:

**stable relative state or leakage when oxygen / minute consumption is close to its maximum limit and heart rate reaches 150-180 beats / minute – the effort can be sustained for 60 minutes.

**the absolute or true stable state, installed at an effort intensity that allows total oxygen supply throughout the activity and with a heart rate of 110-130 beats / minute; the effort is sustained for several hours;

–          Mixed effort

– the required energy is produced by anaerobic or aerobic biochemical reactions depending on the intensity of the effort.

3.      Depending on the type of muscle contractions:

–          Isotonic effort (Dynamic)

– mechanical work is done by shortening muscle fibers;

– initially, increases internal muscle tension, which is maintained throughout the contraction;

–          Isometric effort (Static)

– muscle contraction does not develop mechanical work;

– the muscle does not change its length, but only the internal tension;

– the time to maintain the maximum internal tension in the muscle fibers is 6-8 seconds; after this time, due to the depletion of the energy substrate, the tension decreases because the chemical energy is completely transformed into caloric energy;

– isometric effort leads to the rapid development of muscle strength.

–          Isokinetic effort

– muscle contractions that develop maximum internal tension in all active muscle fibers throughout the contraction period;

– is achieved only by means of a special device (dynamometers or isokinetic bicycles), which require the movement to be performed on the entire free articulation amplitude with a constant angular velocity.

4.      Depending on the application degree of the main devices and systems in the body

–          Neuro-muscular type

– the request is predominantly addressed to the nervous and muscular system;

– depends on the level of development of the nervous system on the central and peripheral component;

– scientific selection is advised in choosing athletes for this type of effort due to the genetic determinism that the parameters of nerve and muscle function have;

–          Cardio-respiratory effort

– the predominant demand is addressed to organs and systems supplying and transporting oxygen for effort;

– is determined by the dimensional and functional factors of the two biological systems involved;

– have a duration of 5-6 minutes up to an hour and depend on the ability of the respiratory system to capture oxygen, blood to carry, and the possibilities of tissues to use it;

–          Endocrine-metabolic effort

– depends on the possibilities of resisting the energy substrate consumed even during the effort;

– hormonal intervention is essential for maintaining glucose through gluconeogenesis processes;

– predominantly aerobic, are performed under absolute stable conditions and last from one hour to 6-8 hours.

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